Which key tools, technologies, and concepts might be covered on the exam?

The following is a non-exhaustive list of the tools and technologies that could appear on the exam. This list is subject to change and is provided to help you understand the general scope of services, features, or technologies on the exam. The general tools and technologies in this list appear in no particular order. AWS services are grouped according to their primary functions. While some of these technologies will likely be covered more than others on the exam, the order and placement of them in this list is no indication of relative weight or importance:



Amazon Athena: Amazon Athena is an interactive query service that makes it easy to analyze data in Amazon S3 using standard SQL. Athena is serverless, so there is no infrastructure to manage, and you pay only for the queries that you run. Athena is easy to use. Simply point to your data in Amazon S3, define the schema, and start querying using standard SQL. Most results are delivered within seconds. With Athena, there’s no need for complex ETL jobs to prepare your data for analysis. This makes it easy for anyone with SQL skills to quickly analyze large-scale datasets. Athena is out-of-the-box integrated with AWS Glue Data Catalog, allowing you to create a unified metadata repository across various services, crawl data sources to discover schemas and populate your Catalog with new and modified table and partition definitions, and maintain schema versioning.

Amazon Elasticsearch Service (now OpenSearch Service): Elasticsearch is a distributed search and analytics engine built on Apache Lucene. Since its release in 2010, Elasticsearch has quickly become the most popular search engine and is commonly used for log analytics, full-text search, security intelligence, business analytics, and operational intelligence use cases. To ensure that the open source community and our customers continue to have a secure, high-quality, fully open source search and analytics suite, we introduced the OpenSearch project, a community-driven, ALv2 licensed fork of open source Elasticsearch and Kibana. Amazon OpenSearch Service makes it easy for you to perform interactive log analytics, real-time application monitoring, a website search, and more. Easily store and analyze data for comprehensive visibility into your system performance with observability logs, metrics, and traces. Set up automated alerts when your system underperforms and find the root cause for availability issues. Centralize and analyze logs from disparate applications and systems across your network for real-time threat detection and incident management. Help users quickly find relevant data with a fast, personalized search experience within your applications, websites, and data lake catalogues.

Amazon EMR(previously called Amazon Elastic MapReduce): Amazon EMR provides a managed Hadoop framework that makes it easy, fast, and cost-effective to process vast amounts of data using EC2 instances. When using Amazon EMR, you don’t need to worry about installing, upgrading, and maintaining Spark software (or any other tool from the Hadoop framework). You also don’t need to worry about installing and maintaining underlying hardware or operating systems. Instead, you can focus on your business applications and use Amazon EMR to remove the undifferentiated heavy lifting.

AWS Glue: AWS Glue is a serverless data integration service that makes it easy to discover, prepare, and combine data for analytics, machine learning, and application development. AWS Glue provides all the capabilities needed for data integration so that you can start analyzing your data and putting it to use in minutes instead of months. AWS Glue provides both visual and code-based interfaces to make data integration easier. Users can easily find and access data using the AWS Glue Data Catalog. Data engineers and ETL (extract, transform, and load) developers can visually create, run, and monitor ETL workflows with a few clicks in AWS Glue Studio. Data analysts and data scientists can use AWS Glue DataBrew to visually enrich, clean, and normalize data without writing code. With AWS Glue Elastic Views, application developers can use familiar Structured Query Language (SQL) to combine and replicate data across different data stores. AWS Glue can run your ETL jobs as new data arrives. For example, you can use an AWS Lambda function to trigger your ETL jobs to run as soon as new data becomes available in Amazon S3. You can also register this new dataset in the AWS Glue Data Catalog as part of your ETL jobs.

Amazon Kinesis: Amazon Kinesis makes it easy to collect, process, and analyze real-time, streaming data so you can get timely insights and react quickly to new information. Amazon Kinesis offers key capabilities to cost-effectively process streaming data at any scale, along with the flexibility to choose the tools that best suit the requirements of your application. With Amazon Kinesis, you can ingest real-time data such as video, audio, application logs, website clickstreams, and IoT telemetry data for machine learning, analytics, and other applications. Amazon Kinesis enables you to process and analyze data as it arrives and respond instantly instead of having to wait until all your data is collected before the processing can begin.

Amazon Kinesis Data Streams: Amazon Kinesis Data Streams enable you to build custom applications that process or analyze streaming data for specialized needs. Kinesis Data Streams can continuously capture and store terabytes of data per hour from hundreds of thousands of sources such as website clickstreams, financial transactions, social media feeds, IT logs, and location-tracking events. With the Kinesis Client Library (KCL), you can build Kinesis Applications and use streaming data to power real-time dashboards, generate alerts, implement dynamic pricing and advertising, and more. You can also emit data from Kinesis Data Streams to other AWS services such as Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Redshift, Amazon EMR, and AWS Lambda. Amazon Kinesis Data Streams (KDS) is a massively scalable and durable real-time data streaming service. KDS can continuously capture gigabytes of data per second from hundreds of thousands of sources such as website clickstreams, database event streams, financial transactions, social media feeds, IT logs, and location-tracking events.

Amazon QuickSight: Amazon QuickSight allows everyone in your organization to understand your data by asking questions in natural language, exploring through interactive dashboards, or automatically looking for patterns and outliers powered by machine learning. Ask conversational questions of your data and use Q’s ML-powered engine to receive relevant visualizations without the time consuming data preparation from authors and admins. Discover hidden insights from your data, perform accurate forecasting and what-if analysis, or add easy-to-understand natural language narratives to dashboards by leveraging AWS’ expertise in machine learning. Easily embed interactive visualizations and dashboards, sophisticated dashboard authoring, or natural language query capabilities in your applications to differentiate user experience and unlock new monetization opportunities.


AWS Budgets: AWS Budgets allows you to set custom budgets to track your cost and usage from the simplest to the most complex use cases. With AWS Budgets, you can choose to be alerted by email or SNS notification when actual or forecasted cost and usage exceed your budget threshold, or when your actual RI and Savings Plans’ utilization or coverage drops below your desired threshold. With AWS Budget Actions, you can also configure specific actions to respond to cost and usage status in your accounts, so that if your cost or usage exceeds or is forecasted to exceed your threshold, actions can be executed automatically or with your approval to reduce unintentional over-spending. AWS Budgets integrates with multiple other AWS services, such as AWS Cost Explorer, so you can easily view and analyze your cost and usage drivers, AWS Chatbot, so you can receive Budget alerts in your designated Slack channel or Amazon Chime room, and AWS Service Catalog, so you can track cost on your approved AWS portfolios and products.

Cost Explorer: AWS Cost Explorer has an easy-to-use interface that lets you visualize, understand, and manage your AWS costs and usage over time. Get started quickly by creating custom reports that analyze cost and usage data, both at a high level and for highly-specific requests. Using AWS Cost Explorer, you can dive deeper into your cost and usage data to identify trends, pinpoint cost drivers, and detect anomalies.


Amazon MQ: Amazon MQ is a managed message broker service that provides compatibility with many popular message brokers. AWS recommends Amazon MQ for migrating applications from existing message brokers that rely on compatibility with APIs such as JMS or protocols such as AMQP, MQTT, OpenWire, and STOMP.

Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS): Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) is a highly available, durable, secure, fully managed pub/sub messaging service that enables you to decouple microservices, distributed systems, and serverless applications. Additionally, SNS can be used to fan out notifications to end users using mobile push, SMS, and email. With the Mobile Push feature of Amazon SNS, you have the ability to send push notification messages directly to apps on mobile devices. Push notification messages sent to a mobile endpoint can appear in the mobile app as message alerts, badge updates, or even sound alerts.

Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS): Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) is a fully managed message queuing service that enables you to decouple and scale microservices, distributed systems, and serverless applications. SQS eliminates the complexity and overhead associated with managing and operating message oriented middleware, and empowers developers to focus on differentiating work. Using SQS, you can send, store, and receive messages between software components at any volume, without losing messages or requiring other services to be available. Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) offers a secure, durable, and available hosted queue that lets you integrate and decouple distributed software systems and components. Since the application relies on an eventual consistency model, there should be no problem on adding an SQS queue in front of the database. SQS lets you decouple application components so that they run and fail independently, increasing the overall fault tolerance of the system. Multiple copies of every message are stored redundantly across multiple availability zones so that they are available whenever needed.

AWS Step Functions: AWS Step Functions is a serverless orchestration service that lets you combine AWS Lambda functions and other AWS services to build business-critical applications. Orchestration centrally manages a workflow by breaking it into multiple steps, adding flow logic, and tracking the inputs and outputs between the steps. As your applications execute, Step Functions maintains the application state, tracking exactly which workflow step your application is in, and stores an event log of data that is passed between application components. Step Functions is based on state machines and tasks. A state machine is a workflow. A task is a state in a workflow that represents a single unit of work that another AWS service performs. Each step in a workflow is a state. With Step Functions’ built-in controls, you examine the state of each step in your workflow to make sure that your application runs in order and as expected. Depending on your use case, you can have Step Functions call AWS services, such as AWS Lambda, to perform tasks. Step Functions is ideal for coordinating session-based applications. You can use Step Functions to coordinate all of the steps of a checkout process on an e-commerce site, for example. Step Functions can read and write from Amazon DynamoDB as needed to manage inventory records.


Amazon Alexa: Alexa is Amazon’s cloud-based voice service available on hundreds of millions of devices from Amazon and third-party device manufacturers. With Alexa, you can build natural voice experiences that offer customers a more intuitive way to interact with the technology they use every day. We offer a collection of tools, APIs, reference solutions, and documentation to make it easier to build for Alexa.

Alexa for Business: Alexa for Business is a service that enables organizations and employees to use Alexa to get more work done. With Alexa for Business, employees can use Alexa as their intelligent assistant to be more productive in meeting rooms, at their desks, and even with the Alexa devices they already use at home or on the go. IT and facilities managers can also use Alexa for Business to measure and increase the utilization of the existing meeting rooms in their workplace. Alexa for Business gives you the tools you need to manage Alexa devices, enroll your users, and assign skills, at scale for your organization.

Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES): Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) is a cost-effective, flexible, and scalable email service that enables developers to send mail from within any application. You can configure Amazon SES quickly to support several email use cases, including transactional, marketing, or mass email communications. Amazon SES’s flexible IP deployment and email authentication options help drive higher deliverability and protect sender reputation, while sending analytics measure the impact of each email. With Amazon SES, you can send email securely, globally, and at scale. Using either the Amazon SES console, APIs, or SMTP, you can configure email sending in minutes. Amazon SES also supports email receiving, enabling you to interact with your customers at scale. Regardless of use case or sending volume, you only pay for what you use with Amazon SES.


Amazon Managed Blockchain: Amazon Managed Blockchain is a fully managed service that makes it easy to join public networks or create and manage scalable private networks using the popular open-source frameworks Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum. Blockchain makes it possible to build applications where multiple parties can execute transactions without the need for a trusted, central authority. Today, building a scalable blockchain network with existing technologies is complex to set up and hard to manage. To create a blockchain network, each network member needs to manually provision hardware, install software, create, and manage certificates for access control, and configure networking components. Once the blockchain network is running, you need to continuously monitor the infrastructure and adapt to changes, such as an increase in transaction requests, or new members joining or leaving the network. Amazon Managed Blockchain is a fully managed service that allows you to join public networks or set up and manage scalable private networks with just a few clicks. Amazon Managed Blockchain eliminates the overhead required to create the network or join a public network, and automatically scales to meet the demands of thousands of applications running millions of transactions. Once your network is up and running, Managed Blockchain makes it easy to manage and maintain your blockchain network. It manages your certificates and lets you easily invite new members to join the network.


AWS Batch: AWS Batch enables developers, scientists, and engineers to easily and efficiently run hundreds of thousands of batch computing jobs on AWS. AWS Batch dynamically provisions the optimal quantity and type of compute resources (e.g., CPU or memory optimized instances) based on the volume and specific resource requirements of the batch jobs submitted. With AWS Batch, there is no need to install and manage batch computing software or server clusters that you use to run your jobs, allowing you to focus on analyzing results and solving problems. AWS Batch plans, schedules, and executes your batch computing workloads across the full range of AWS compute services and features, such as AWS Fargate, Amazon EC2 and Spot Instances.

Amazon EC2: Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) offers the broadest and deepest compute platform, with over 500 instances and choice of the latest processor, storage, networking, operating system, and purchase model to help you best match the needs of your workload. We are the first major cloud provider that supports Intel, AMD, and Arm processors, the only cloud with on-demand EC2 Mac instances, and the only cloud with 400 Gbps Ethernet networking. We offer the best price performance for machine learning training, as well as the lowest cost per inference instances in the cloud. More SAP, high performance computing (HPC), ML, and Windows workloads run on AWS than any other cloud. Amazon EC2 delivers secure, reliable, high-performance, and cost-effective compute infrastructure to meet demanding business needs. Access the on-demand infrastructure and capacity you need to run HPC applications faster and cost-effectively. Build, test, and sign on-demand macOS workloads. Access environments in minutes, dynamically scale capacity as needed, and benefit from AWS’s pay-as-you-go pricing. Amazon EC2 delivers the broadest choice of compute, networking (up to 400 Gbps), and storage services purpose-built to optimize price performance for ML projects.

AWS Elastic Beanstalk: AWS Elastic Beanstalk provides several options for how deployments are processed, including deployment policies (All at once, Rolling, Rolling with additional batch, and Immutable) and options that let you configure batch size and health check behavior during deployments. By default, your environment uses all-at-once deployments. If you created the environment with the EB CLI and it’s an automatically scaling environment (you didn’t specify the –single option), it uses rolling deployments. You can use the AWS Elastic Beanstalk console to upload an updated source bundle and deploy it to your Elastic Beanstalk environment or redeploy a previously uploaded version.

Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS): Amazon ECS enables you to inject sensitive data into your containers by storing your sensitive data in either AWS Secrets Manager secrets or AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store parameters and then referencing them in your container definition. This feature is supported by tasks using both the EC2 and Fargate launch types. Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) is a shared state, optimistic concurrency system that provides flexible scheduling capabilities for your tasks and containers. Each task that uses the Fargate launch type has its own isolation boundary and does not share the underlying kernel, CPU resources, memory resources, or elastic network interface with another task.

Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS): Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS) is a managed container service to run and scale Kubernetes applications in the cloud or on-premises. Manage your Kubernetes clusters and applications in hybrid environments and run Kubernetes in your data centers. Efficiently run distributed training jobs using the latest Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) GPU-powered instances, including Inferentia, and deploy training and inferences using Kubeflow. Create applications that automatically scale up and down and run in a highly available configuration across multiple Availability Zones (AZs) with out-of-the-box networking and security integrations.

Elastic Load Balancing: Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple targets and virtual appliances in one or more Availability Zones (AZs). Scale modern applications to meet demand without complex configurations or API gateways. Load balance across AWS and on-premises resources using a single load balancer. Deploy network appliances from your preferred vendor while taking advantage of the scale and flexibility of the cloud.

AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM): AWS Serverless Application Model (AWS SAM) is an open-source framework that you can use to build serverless applications on AWS. It consists of the AWS SAM template specification that you use to define your serverless applications, and the AWS SAM command line interface (AWS SAM CLI) that you use to build, test, and deploy your serverless applications.

AWS Fargate: AWS Fargate is a serverless compute engine for containers that works with both Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) and Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS). Fargate removes the need to provision and manage servers, lets you specify and pay for resources per application, and improves security through application isolation by design. Fargate allocates the right amount of compute resources, eliminating the need to choose instances and scale cluster capacity. You only pay for the resources required to run your containers, so there is no over-provisioning and paying for additional servers. Fargate runs each task or pod in its own kernel providing the tasks and pods their own isolated compute environment.

AWS Lambda: AWS Lambda is a compute service that lets you run code without provisioning or managing servers. Lambda runs your code only when needed and scales automatically, from a few requests per day to thousands per second. You are charged based on the number of requests for your functions and the duration, the time it takes for your code to execute. Lambda counts a request each time it starts executing in response to an event notification or invoke call, including test invokes from the console. Lambda@Edge lets you run Lambda functions to customize the content that CloudFront delivers, executing the functions in AWS locations closer to the viewer. The functions run in response to CloudFront events, without provisioning or managing servers. Lambda@Edge is an extension of AWS Lambda, a compute service that lets you execute functions that customize the content that CloudFront delivers. You can author Node.js or Python functions in one Region, US-East-1 (N. Virginia), and then execute them in AWS locations globally that are closer to the viewer, without provisioning or managing servers. Lambda@Edge scales automatically, from a few requests per day to thousands per second. Processing requests at AWS locations closer to the viewer instead of on origin servers significantly reduces latency and improves the user experience. In AWS Lambda, the first time you invoke your function, AWS Lambda creates an instance of the function and runs its handler method to process the event. When the function returns a response, it stays active and waits to process additional events. If you invoke the function again while the first event is being processed, Lambda initializes another instance, and the function processes the two events concurrently. Your functions’ concurrency is the number of instances that serve requests at a given time. For an initial burst of traffic, your functions’ cumulative concurrency in a Region can reach an initial level of between 500 and 3000, which varies per Region.

Amazon Lightsail: Amazon Lightsail enables building of applications and websites fast with low-cost, pre-configured cloud resources. Create a website or application in just a few clicks. Automatically configure networking, access, and security environments. Easily scale as you grow—or migrate your resources to the broader AWS ecosystem, such as Amazon EC2. Amazon Lightsail offers easy-to-use virtual private server (VPS) instances, containers, storage, databases, and more at a cost-effective monthly price. Use pre-configured development stacks like LAMP, Nginx, MEAN, and Node.js. to get online quickly and easily. Build and personalize your blog, ecommerce, or personal website in just a few clicks, with pre-configured applications like WordPress, Magento, Prestashop, and Joomla. Launch line-of-business software such as file storage and sharing, backups, financial and accounting software, and more. Easily create and delete development sandboxes and test environments where you can try out new ideas, risk free.

AWS Outposts: AWS Outposts is a family of fully managed solutions delivering AWS infrastructure and services to virtually any on-premises or edge location for a truly consistent hybrid experience. Outposts solutions allow you to extend and run native AWS services on premises, and is available in a variety of form factors, from 1U and 2U Outposts servers to 42U Outposts racks, and multiple rack deployments. With AWS Outposts, you can run some AWS services locally and connect to a broad range of services available in the local AWS Region. Run applications and workloads on premises using familiar AWS services, tools, and APIs. Outposts supports workloads and devices requiring low latency access to on-premises systems, local data processing, data residency, and application migration with local system interdependencies.


Amazon Elastic Container Registry (Amazon ECR): Amazon ECR is a fully managed container registry offering high-performance hosting, so you can reliably deploy application images and artifacts anywhere. Push container images to Amazon ECR without installing or scaling infrastructure, and pull images using any management tool. Share and download images securely over Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) with automatic encryption and access controls. Access and distribute your images faster, reduce download times, and improve availability using a scalable, durable architecture.


Amazon Aurora: Amazon Aurora is a fully managed relational database engine that’s compatible with MySQL and PostgreSQL. Aurora includes a high-performance storage subsystem. Its MySQL- and PostgreSQL-compatible database engines are customized to take advantage of that fast distributed storage.. Amazon Aurora Global Database is designed for globally distributed applications, allowing a single Amazon Aurora database to span multiple AWS regions. It replicates your data with no impact on database performance, enables fast local reads with low latency in each region, and provides disaster recovery from region-wide outages. Aurora Global Database lets you easily scale database reads across the world and place your applications close to your users. Your applications enjoy quick data access regardless of the number and location of secondary regions, with typical cross-region replication latencies below 1 second. If your primary region suffers a performance degradation or outage, you can promote one of the secondary regions to take read/write responsibilities. An Aurora cluster can recover in less than 1 minute even in the event of a complete regional outage. This provides your application with an effective Recovery Point Objective (RPO) of 1 second and a Recovery Time Objective (RTO) of less than 1 minute, providing a strong foundation for a global business continuity plan.

Amazon DynamoDB: Amazon DynamoDB auto scaling uses the AWS Application Auto Scaling service to dynamically adjust provisioned throughput capacity on your behalf, in response to actual traffic patterns. This enables a table or a global secondary index to increase its provisioned read and write capacity to handle sudden increases in traffic, without throttling. When the workload decreases, Application Auto Scaling decreases the throughput so that you don’t pay for unused provisioned capacity. In Amazon DynamoDB, the ProvisionedThroughputExceededException error means that you exceeded your maximum allowed provisioned throughput for a table or for one or more global secondary indexes. This means that your request rate is too high. The AWS SDKs for DynamoDB automatically retries requests that receive this exception. Your request is eventually successful unless your retry queue is too large to finish. DynamoDB stores structured data in tables, indexed by primary key, and allows low-latency read and write access to items ranging from 1 byte up to 400 KB. DynamoDB supports three data types (number, string, and binary), in both scalar and multi-valued sets. It supports document stores such as JSON, XML, or HTML in these data types. Tables do not have a fixed schema, so each data item can have a different number of attributes. The primary key can either be a single-attribute hash key or a composite hash-range key.

Amazon ElastiCache: Amazon ElastiCache can be used to significantly improve latency and throughput for many read-heavy application workloads (such as social networking, gaming, media sharing and Q&A portals) or compute-intensive workloads (such as a recommendation engine) by allowing you to store the objects that are often read in cache. Moreover, with Redis’ support for advanced data structures, you can augment the database tier to provide features (such as leaderboard, counting, session and tracking) that are not easily achievable via databases in a cost-effective way. Amazon ElastiCache allows you to seamlessly set up, run, and scale popular open-source compatible in-memory data stores in the cloud. Build data-intensive apps or boost the performance of your existing databases by retrieving data from high throughput and low latency in-memory data stores. Amazon ElastiCache is a popular choice for real-time use cases like Caching, Session Stores, Gaming, Geospatial Services, Real-Time Analytics, and Queuing. Amazon ElastiCache allows you to seamlessly set up, run, and scale popular open-source compatible in-memory data stores in the cloud. Build data-intensive apps or boost the performance of your existing databases by retrieving data from high throughput and low latency in-memory data stores. Both Redis and MemCached are in-memory, open-source data stores. Memcached, a high-performance distributed memory cache service, is designed for simplicity while Redis offers a rich set of features that make it effective for a wide range of use cases.

Amazon Neptune: Amazon Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully managed graph database service that makes it easy to build and run applications. Easily build identity graphs for identity resolution solutions such as social graphs, and accelerate updates for ad targeting, personalization, and analytics. Add topical data to product catalogs, model general information, and help users quickly navigate highly connected datasets. Build graph queries for near-real-time identity fraud pattern detection in financial and purchase transactions. Enable easy, fast predictions with machine learning (ML) and improve accuracy by over 50 percent compared to non-graph methods with Amazon Neptune ML.

Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS): Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) is a web service that makes it easier to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the AWS Cloud. It provides cost-efficient, resizable capacity for an industry-standard relational database and manages common database administration tasks.. Amazon RDS provides high availability and failover support for DB instances using Multi-AZ deployments. In a Multi-AZ deployment, Amazon RDS automatically provisions and maintains a synchronous standby replica in a different Availability Zone. The primary DB instance is synchronously replicated across Availability Zones to a standby replica to provide data redundancy, eliminate I/O freezes, and minimize latency spikes during system backups.

Amazon Redshift: Amazon Redshift is a fully managed, petabyte-scale data warehouse service in the cloud. An Amazon Redshift data warehouse is a collection of computing resources called nodes, which are organized into a group called a cluster. Each cluster runs an Amazon Redshift engine and contains one or more databases. With Redshift, you can query and combine exabytes of structured and semi-structured data across your data warehouse, operational database, and data lake using standard SQL.


AWS Cloud9: AWS Cloud9 is a cloud-based integrated development environment (IDE) that lets you write, run, and debug your code with just a browser. It includes a code editor, debugger, and terminal. Cloud9 comes prepackaged with essential tools for popular programming languages, including JavaScript, Python, PHP, and more, so you don’t need to install files or configure your development machine to start new projects. Since your Cloud9 IDE is cloud-based, you can work on your projects from your office, home, or anywhere using an internet-connected machine. Cloud9 also provides a seamless experience for developing serverless applications enabling you to easily define resources, debug, and switch between local and remote execution of serverless applications. With Cloud9, you can quickly share your development environment with your team, enabling you to pair program and track each other’s inputs in real time. AWS Cloud9 makes it easy to write, run, and debug serverless applications. It preconfigures the development environment with all the SDKs, libraries, and plug-ins needed for serverless development. Cloud9 also provides an environment for locally testing and debugging AWS Lambda functions. This allows you to iterate on your code directly, saving you time and improving the quality of your code.

AWS CodeBuild: AWS CodeBuild is a fully managed build service in the cloud. CodeBuild compiles your source code, runs unit tests, and produces artifacts that are ready to deploy. CodeBuild eliminates the need to provision, manage, and scale your own build servers. It scales continuously and processes multiple builds concurrently, so your builds are not left waiting in a queue. It provides prepackaged build environments for popular programming languages and build tools such as Apache Maven, Gradle, and more. You can also customize build environments in CodeBuild to use your own build tools. Fully managed – CodeBuild eliminates the need to set up, patch, update, and manage your own build servers. On demand – CodeBuild scales on demand to meet your build needs. You pay only for the number of build minutes you consume. Out of the box – CodeBuild provides preconfigured build environments for the most popular programming languages. All you need to do is point to your build script to start your first build.

AWS CodeCommit: AWS CodeCommit is a version control service hosted by Amazon Web Services that you can use to privately store and manage assets (such as documents, source code, and binary files) in the cloud. You can configure a CodeCommit repository so that code pushes or other events trigger actions, such as sending a notification from Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) or invoking a function in AWS Lambda. You can create up to 10 triggers for each CodeCommit repository.

AWS CodeDeploy: CodeDeploy is a deployment service that automates application deployments to Amazon EC2 instances, on-premises instances, serverless Lambda functions, or Amazon ECS services. CodeDeploy can deploy application content that runs on a server and is stored in Amazon S3 buckets, GitHub repositories, or Bitbucket repositories. CodeDeploy can also deploy a serverless Lambda function. You do not need to make changes to your existing code before you can use CodeDeploy. AWS CodeDeploy is a fully managed deployment service that automates software deployments to a variety of compute services such as Amazon EC2, AWS Fargate, AWS Lambda, and your on-premises servers. AWS CodeDeploy makes it possible to automate the deployment of code to either Amazon EC2 or on-premises instances. AWS CodeDeploy supports blue/green deployments.

AWS CodePipeline: AWS CodePipeline is a continuous delivery service for fast and reliable application and infrastructure updates. CodePipeline builds, tests, and deploys your code every time there is a code change, based on the release process models you define. With continuous delivery, you can automatically deploy CloudFormation template updates to your pipeline stages for testing and then promote them to production. For example, you could use CodePipeline to model an automated release process that provisions a test stack whenever an updated template is committed to a source repository (Git repositories managed by GitHub, AWS CodeCommit, and Atlassian Bitbucket) or uploaded to an Amazon S3 bucket. You can inspect the test stack and then approve it to the production stage, after which CodePipeline can delete the test stack and create a change set for final approval. When the change set is approved, CodePipeline can execute the change set and deploy the change to production. You can automate your release process by using AWS CodePipeline to test your code and run your builds with AWS CodeBuild. Create a continuous delivery (CD) pipeline with CodePipeline that automates builds with CodeBuild. Add test and build automation with CodeBuild to an existing pipeline in CodePipeline.


Amazon AppStream 2.0: Amazon AppStream 2.0 is a fully managed application streaming service. You centrally manage your desktop applications on AppStream 2.0 and securely deliver them to any computer. You can easily scale to any number of users across the globe without acquiring, provisioning, and operating hardware or infrastructure. AppStream 2.0 is built on AWS, so you benefit from a data center and network architecture designed for the most security-sensitive organizations. Each user has a fluid and responsive experience with your applications, including GPU-intensive 3D design and engineering ones, because your applications run on virtual machines (VMs) optimized for specific use cases and each streaming session automatically adjusts to network conditions.

Amazon WorkSpaces: Amazon WorkSpaces enables you to provision virtual, cloud-based Microsoft Windows or Amazon Linux desktops for your users, known as WorkSpaces. WorkSpaces eliminates the need to procure and deploy hardware or install complex software. You can quickly add or remove users as your needs change. Users can access their virtual desktops from multiple devices or web browsers. Amazon WorkSpaces Application Manager (Amazon WAM) offers a fast, flexible, and secure way for you to deploy and manage applications for Amazon WorkSpaces with Windows. Amazon WAM accelerates software deployment, updates, patching, and retirement by packaging Microsoft Windows desktop applications into virtual containers that run as though they are installed natively.


AWS AppSync: AWS AppSync is a fully managed service that makes it easy to develop GraphQL APIs by handling the heavy lifting of securely connecting to data sources like Amazon DynamoDB, Lambda, and more. Adding caches to improve performance, subscriptions to support real-time updates, and client-side data stores that keep offline clients in sync are just as easy. Once deployed, AWS AppSync automatically scales your GraphQL API execution engine up and down to meet API request volumes.


Amazon Comprehend: Amazon Comprehend is a natural-language processing (NLP) service that uses machine learning to uncover valuable insights and connections in text. It uses machine learning to help you uncover the insights and relationships in your unstructured data. The service identifies the language of the text; extracts key phrases, places, people, brands, or events; understands how positive or negative the text is; analyzes text using tokenization and parts of speech; and automatically organizes a collection of text files by topic. You can also use AutoML capabilities in Amazon Comprehend to build a custom set of entities or text classification models that are tailored uniquely to your organization’s needs.

Amazon Forecast: Amazon Forecast is a time-series forecasting service based on machine learning (ML) and built for business metrics analysis. Enhance software as a service (SaaS) product capabilities with integrated ML-based forecasts to identify complex demand relationships. Predict inventory needs at individual stores by combining historical sales and demand data with associated web traffic, pricing, product category, weather, and holiday information. Improve utilization and customer satisfaction with accurate resource requirement forecasting in near-real time.

Amazon Connect: Amazon Connect provides a seamless omnichannel experience through a single unified contact center for voice and chat. Contact center agents and managers don’t have to learn multiple tools, because Amazon Connect has the same contact routing, queuing, analytics, and management tools in a single UI across voice, web chat, and mobile chat. It is an easy to use omnichannel cloud contact center that helps companies provide superior customer service across voice, chat, and tasks at a lower cost than traditional contact center systems. You can set up a contact center in a few steps, add agents who are located anywhere, and start engaging with your customers.

Amazon Lex: Amazon Lex is a service for building conversational interfaces into any application using voice and text. Amazon Lex provides the advanced deep learning functionalities of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for converting speech to text, and natural language understanding (NLU) to recognize the intent of the text, to enable you to build applications with highly engaging user experiences and lifelike conversational interactions. With Amazon Lex, the same deep learning technologies that power Amazon Alexa are now available to any developer, enabling you to quickly and easily build sophisticated, natural language, conversational bots (“chatbots”).

Amazon Rekognition: Amazon Rekognition can store information about detected faces in server-side containers known as collections. You can use the facial information that’s stored in a collection to search for known faces in images, stored videos, and streaming videos. Amazon Rekognition supports the IndexFaces operation. You can use this operation to detect faces in an image and persist information about facial features that are detected into a collection. This is an example of a storage-based API operation because the service persists information on the server. Amazon Rekognition makes it easy to add image and video analysis to your applications using proven, highly scalable, deep learning technology that requires no machine learning expertise to use. With Amazon Rekognition, you can identify objects, people, text, scenes, and activities in images and videos, as well as detect any inappropriate content.

Amazon SageMaker: Amazon SageMaker is a fully managed machine learning service. With SageMaker, data scientists and developers can quickly and easily build and train machine learning models, and then directly deploy them into a production-ready hosted environment. It provides an integrated Jupyter authoring notebook instance for easy access to your data sources for exploration and analysis, so you don’t have to manage servers. It also provides common machine learning algorithms that are optimized to run efficiently against extremely large data in a distributed environment. With native support for bring-your-own-algorithms and frameworks, SageMaker offers flexible distributed training options that adjust to your specific workflows.

Amazon Transcribe: Amazon Transcribe is an AWS service that makes it easy for customers to convert speech-to-text. Using Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology, customers can choose to use Amazon Transcribe for a variety of business applications, including transcription of voice-based customer service calls, generation of subtitles on audio/video content, and conduct (text-based) content analysis on audio/video content. Amazon Transcribe analyzes audio files that contain speech and uses advanced machine learning techniques to transcribe the voice data into text. You can then use the transcription as you would any text document.

Amazon Translate: Amazon Translate is a neural machine translation service that delivers fast, high-quality, affordable, and customizable language translation. Neural machine translation is a form of language translation automation that uses deep learning models to deliver more accurate and more natural sounding translation than traditional statistical and rule-based translation algorithms. With Amazon Translate, you can localize content such as websites and applications for your diverse users, easily translate large volumes of text for analysis, and efficiently enable cross-lingual communication between users.


AWS Auto Scaling: AWS Auto Scaling monitors your applications and automatically adjusts capacity to maintain steady, predictable performance at the lowest possible cost. Using AWS Auto Scaling, it’s easy to setup application scaling for multiple resources across multiple services in minutes. The service provides a simple, powerful user interface that lets you build scaling plans for resources including Amazon EC2 instances and Spot Fleets, Amazon ECS tasks, Amazon DynamoDB tables and indexes, and Amazon Aurora Replicas. AWS Auto Scaling makes scaling simple with recommendations that allow you to optimize performance, costs, or balance between them. If you’re already using Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling to dynamically scale your Amazon EC2 instances, you can now combine it with AWS Auto Scaling to scale additional resources for other AWS services. With AWS Auto Scaling, your applications always have the right resources at the right time. AWS Auto Scaling lets you build scaling plans that automate how groups of different resources respond to changes in demand. You can optimize availability, costs, or a balance of both. AWS Auto Scaling automatically creates all of the scaling policies and sets targets for you based on your preference. AWS Auto Scaling monitors your application and automatically adds or removes capacity from your resource groups in real-time as demands change.

AWS Backup: AWS Backup enables you to centralize and automate data protection across AWS services and hybrid workloads. AWS Backup offers a cost-effective, fully managed, policy-based service that further simplifies data protection at scale. AWS Backup also helps you support your regulatory compliance or business policies for data protection. Together with AWS Organizations, AWS Backup enables you to centrally deploy data protection policies to configure, manage, and govern your backup activity across your organization’s AWS accounts and resources.

AWS CloudFormation: AWS CloudFormation gives you an easy way to model a collection of related AWS resources, provision them quickly and consistently, and manage them throughout their lifecycles, by treating infrastructure as code. A CloudFormation template describes your desired resources and their dependencies so you can launch and configure them together as a stack. In CloudFormation, the AWS::AutoScaling::AutoScalingGroup resource defines an Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling group, which is a collection of Amazon EC2 instances that are treated as a logical grouping for the purposes of automatic scaling and management. AWS CloudFormation provides a common language for you to describe and provision all the infrastructure resources in your cloud environment. CloudFormation allows you to use a simple text file to model and provision, in an automated and secure manner, all the resources needed for your applications across all regions and accounts. This file serves as the single source of truth for your cloud environment. AWS CloudFormation provides several built-in functions that help you manage your stacks which are called “intrinsic functions”. Use intrinsic functions in your templates to assign values to properties that are not available until runtime.

AWS CloudTrail: AWS CloudTrail is a service that enables governance, compliance, operational auditing, and risk auditing of your AWS account. With CloudTrail, you can log, continuously monitor, and retain events related to API calls across your AWS infrastructure. CloudTrail provides a history of AWS API calls for your account, including API calls made through the AWS Management Console, AWS SDKs, command line tools, and other AWS services. This history simplifies security analysis, resource change tracking, and troubleshooting.

AWS OpsWorks: AWS OpsWorks has the concept of stacks, which are logical groupings of AWS resources (EC2 instances, Amazon RDS, Elastic Load Balancing, and so on) that have a common purpose and should be logically managed together. Stacks are made of one or more layers. A layer represents a set of EC2 instances that serve a particular purpose, such as serving applications or hosting a database server. When a data store is part of the stack, you should be aware of certain data management challenges. In OpsWorks, you will be provisioning a stack and layers. The stack is the top-level AWS OpsWorks Stacks entity. It represents a set of instances that you want to manage collectively, typically because they have a common purpose such as serving PHP applications. In addition to serving as a container, a stack handles tasks that apply to the group of instances as a whole, such as managing applications and cookbooks.

Amazon CloudWatch: CloudWatch Logs Insights enables you to interactively search and analyze your log data in Amazon CloudWatch Logs. You can perform queries to help you quickly and effectively respond to operational issues. If an issue occurs, you can use CloudWatch Logs Insights to identify potential causes and validate deployed fixes.

Amazon CloudWatch Events: Amazon CloudWatch Events delivers a near real-time stream of system events that describe changes in Amazon Web Services (AWS) resources. Using simple rules that you can quickly set up, you can match events and route them to one or more target functions or streams. CloudWatch Events becomes aware of operational changes as they occur. CloudWatch Events responds to these operational changes and takes corrective action as necessary, by sending messages to respond to the environment, activating functions, making changes, and capturing state information.

AWS Compute Optimizer: AWS Compute Optimizer recommends optimal AWS resources for your workloads to reduce costs and improve performance by using machine learning to analyze historical utilization metrics. Overprovisioning resources can lead to unnecessary infrastructure cost, and underprovisioning resources can lead to poor application performance. Compute Optimizer helps you choose optimal configurations for three types of AWS resources—e.g. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) instance types, Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes, and AWS Lambda functions—based on your utilization data. By applying the knowledge drawn from Amazon’s own experience running diverse workloads in the cloud, Compute Optimizer identifies workload patterns and recommends optimal AWS resources.

AWS Config: AWS Config provides AWS managed rules, which are predefined, customizable rules that AWS Config uses to evaluate whether your AWS resources comply with common best practices. For example, you could use a managed rule to quickly start assessing whether your Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes are encrypted or whether specific tags are applied to your resources. You can set up and activate these rules without writing the code to create an AWS Lambda function, which is required if you want to create custom rules. The AWS Config console guides you through the process of configuring and activating a managed rule. You can also use the AWS Command Line Interface or AWS Config API to pass the JSON code that defines your configuration of a managed rule. AWS Config provides a detailed view of the configuration of AWS resources in your AWS account. This includes how the resources are related to one another and how they were configured in the past so that you can see how the configurations and relationships change over time. AWS Config is a service that enables you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configurations of your AWS resources. Config continuously monitors and records your AWS resource configurations and allows you to automate the evaluation of recorded configurations against desired configurations.

AWS Control Tower: If you have multiple AWS accounts and teams, cloud setup and governance can be complex and time consuming, slowing down the very innovation you’re trying to speed up. AWS Control Tower provides the easiest way to set up and govern a secure, multi-account AWS environment, called a landing zone. It creates your landing zone using AWS Organizations, bringing ongoing account management and governance as well as implementation best practices based on AWS’s experience working with thousands of customers as they move to the cloud. Builders can provision new AWS accounts in a few clicks, while you have peace of mind knowing that your accounts conform to company policies. Extend governance into new or existing accounts, and gain visibility into their compliance status quickly. If you are building a new AWS environment, starting out on your journey to AWS, or starting a new cloud initiative, AWS Control Tower will help you get started quickly with built-in governance and best practices.

Amazon EventBridge: Amazon EventBridge is a serverless event bus that makes it easier to build event-driven applications at scale using events generated from your applications, integrated Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications, and AWS services. EventBridge delivers a stream of real-time data from event sources such as Zendesk or Shopify to targets like AWS Lambda and other SaaS applications. You can set up routing rules to determine where to send your data to build application architectures that react in real-time to your data sources with event publisher and consumer completely decoupled.

AWS License Manager: AWS License Manager makes it easier to manage your software licenses from vendors such as Microsoft, SAP, Oracle, and IBM across AWS and on-premises environments. AWS License Manager lets administrators create customized licensing rules that mirror the terms of their licensing agreements. Administrators can use these rules to help prevent licensing violations, such as using more licenses than an agreement stipulates. Rules in AWS License Manager help prevent a licensing breach by stopping the instance from launching or by notifying administrators about the infringement. Administrators gain control and visibility of all their licenses with the AWS License Manager dashboard and reduce the risk of non-compliance, misreporting, and additional costs due to licensing overages. Independent software vendors (ISVs) can also use AWS License Manager to easily distribute and track licenses.

AWS Organizations: AWS Organizations offers policy-based management for multiple AWS accounts. With Organizations, you can create groups of accounts, automate account creation, and apply and manage policies for those groups. Organizations enables you to centrally manage policies across multiple accounts, without requiring custom scripts and manual processes. It allows you to create Service Control Policies (SCPs) that centrally control AWS service use across multiple AWS accounts.. AWS Organizations can work with CloudWatch Events to raise events when administrator-specified actions occur in an organization. For example, because of the sensitivity of such actions, most administrators would want to be warned every time someone creates a new account in the organization or when an administrator of a member account attempts to leave the organization. You can configure CloudWatch Events rules that look for these actions and then send the generated events to administrator-defined targets. Targets can be an Amazon SNS topic that emails or text messages its subscribers. Combining this with Amazon CloudTrail, you can set an event to trigger whenever a matching API call is received. AWS Organizations helps you centrally manage and govern your environment as you grow and scale your AWS resources. Using AWS Organizations, you can programmatically create new AWS accounts and allocate resources, group accounts to organize your workflows, apply policies to accounts or groups for governance, and simplify billing by using a single payment method for all of your accounts.

AWS Resource Access Manager (AWS RAM): AWS Resource Access Manager (AWS RAM) enables you to share specified AWS resources that you own with other AWS accounts. AWS Resource Access Manager (RAM) helps you securely share your resources across AWS accounts, within your organization or organizational units (OUs) in AWS Organizations, and with IAM roles and IAM users for supported resource types. You can use AWS RAM to share transit gateways, subnets, AWS License Manager license configurations, Amazon Route 53 Resolver rules, and more resource types.

AWS Service Catalog: AWS Service Catalog allows organizations to create and manage catalogs of IT services that are approved for use on AWS. These IT services can include everything from virtual machine images, servers, software, and databases to complete multi-tier application architectures. AWS Service Catalog allows you to centrally manage deployed IT services and your applications, resources, and metadata. With AWS Service Catalog, you define your own catalog of AWS services and AWS Marketplace software and make them available for your organization. Then, end users can quickly discover and deploy IT services using a self-service portal.

AWS Systems Manager: AWS Systems Manager is a secure end-to-end management solution for hybrid cloud environments. Improve visibility and control in the cloud, on premises, and at the edge. Shorten the time to detect and resolve operational issues. Maintain instance compliance against your patch, configuration, and custom policies. Automate configuration and ongoing management of your applications and resources. AWS Systems Manager is the operations hub for your AWS applications and resources, and is broken into four core feature groups: Operations Management (Explorer, OpsCenter, & Incident Manager), Application Management (Application Manager, AppConfig, & Parameter Store), Change Management (Automation, Change Manager, & Maintenance Windows) and Node Management (Fleet Manager, Session Manager, & Patch Manager)

AWS Systems Manager Session Manager: AWS Systems Manager Session Manager allows you to manage your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances, on-premises instances, and virtual machines (VMs) through an interactive one-click browser-based shell or through the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). Session Manager provides secure and auditable instance management without the need to open inbound ports, maintain bastion hosts, or manage SSH keys.

AWS Systems Manager Patch Manager: automates the process of patching managed instances with both security-related and other types of updates. You can use Patch Manager to apply patches for both operating systems and applications. You can use Patch Manager to install Service Packs on Windows instances and perform minor version upgrades on Linux instances. You can patch fleets of Amazon EC2 instances or your on-premises servers and virtual machines (VMs) by operating system type. This includes supported versions of Windows Server, Ubuntu Server, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES), CentOS, Amazon Linux, and Amazon Linux 2. You can scan instances to see only a report of missing patches, or you can scan and automatically install all missing patches.

AWS Systems Manager Automation: AWS Systems Manager Automation simplifies common maintenance and deployment tasks of Amazon EC2 instances and other AWS resources. SSM Automation offers one-click automation for simplifying complex tasks such as creating golden Amazon Machines Images (AMIs) and recovering unreachable EC2 instances. For example, you can use Use the AWS-UpdateLinuxAmi and AWS-UpdateWindowsAmi runbooks to create golden AMIs from a source AMI. You can run custom scripts before and after updates are applied. You can also include or exclude specific packages from being installed.

AWS Trusted Advisor: AWS Trusted Advisor is an online tool that provides you real-time guidance to help you provision your resources following AWS best practices. Whether establishing new workflows, developing applications, or as part of ongoing improvement, take advantage of the recommendations provided by Trusted Advisor on a regular basis to help keep your solutions provisioned optimally. AWS Trusted Advisor provides recommendations that help you follow AWS best practices. Trusted Advisor evaluates your account by using checks. These checks identify ways to optimize your AWS infrastructure, improve security and performance, reduce costs, and monitor service quotas. You can then follow the check recommendations to optimize your services and resources.

AWS Well-Architected Tool: The AWS Well-Architected Tool is designed to help you review the state of your applications and workloads, and it provides a central place for architectural best practices and guidance. The AWS Well-Architected Tool is based on the AWS Well-Architected Framework, which was developed to help cloud architects build secure, high-performing, resilient, and efficient application infrastructures. The Framework has been used in tens of thousands of workload reviews by AWS solutions architects, and it provides a consistent approach for evaluating your cloud architecture and implementing designs that will scale with your application needs over time.


Amazon Elastic Transcoder: Amazon Elastic Transcoder is media transcoding in the cloud. It is designed to be a highly scalable, easy to use and a cost effective way for developers and businesses to convert (or “transcode”) media files from their source format into versions that will playback on devices like smartphones, tablets and PCs. Amazon Elastic Transcoder manages all aspects of the media transcoding process for you transparently and automatically. There’s no need to administer software, scale hardware, tune performance, or otherwise manage transcoding infrastructure. You simply create a transcoding “job” specifying the location of your source media file and how you want it transcoded. Amazon Elastic Transcoder also provides transcoding presets for popular output formats, which means that you don’t need to guess about which settings work best on particular devices. All these features are available via service API, AWS SDKs and the AWS Management Console.


AWS Database Migration Service (AWS DMS): AWS Database Migration Service helps you migrate databases to AWS quickly and securely. The source database remains fully operational during the migration, minimizing downtime to applications that rely on the database. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from the most widely used commercial and open-source databases. The AWS Database Migration Service can migrate your data to and from the most widely used commercial and open-source databases. AWS Database Migration Service supports homogeneous migrations such as Oracle to Oracle, as well as heterogeneous migrations between different database platforms, such as Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server to Amazon Aurora. With AWS Database Migration Service, you can continuously replicate your data with high availability and consolidate databases into a petabyte-scale data warehouse by streaming data to Amazon Redshift and Amazon S3.

AWS Migration Hub: AWS Migration Hub provides a single place to discover your existing servers, plan migrations, and track the status of each application migration. The Migration Hub provides visibility into your application portfolio and streamlines planning and tracking. You can visualize the connections and the status of the servers and databases that make up each of the applications you are migrating, regardless of which migration tool you are using. Migration Hub gives you the choice to start migrating right away and group servers while migration is underway, or to first discover servers and then group them into applications.

AWS Server Migration Service (AWS SMS): AWS Server Migration Service automates the migration of your on-premises VMware vSphere, Microsoft Hyper-V/SCVMM, and Azure virtual machines to the AWS Cloud. AWS SMS incrementally replicates your server VMs as cloud-hosted Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) ready for deployment on Amazon EC2. Working with AMIs, you can easily test and update your cloud-based images before deploying them in production. AWS Server Migration Service is designed to simplify the end-to-end server migration process. AWS SMS currently supports the migration of on-premises virtual machines (VMs) as an agentless service using a virtual appliance. AWS SMS is an ideal solution to use when you are planning a scaled migration from VMware environments to AWS where the downtime, agentless tools, incremental replication, and testing the application before the cutover are critical considerations.

AWS Snowball: AWS Snowball is a petabyte-scale data transport solution that uses secure appliances to transfer large amounts of data into and out of the AWS cloud. Using Snowball addresses common challenges with large-scale data transfers including high network costs, long transfer times, and security concerns. AWS Snowball moves terabytes of data in about a week. You can use it to move things like databases, backups, archives, healthcare records, analytics datasets, IoT sensor data and media content, especially when network conditions prevent realistic timelines for transferring large amounts of data both into and out of AWS. Data from the Snowball device will be imported to your selected Amazon S3 bucket. AWS Snowball, a part of the AWS Snow Family, is an edge computing, data migration, and edge storage device that comes in two options. Snowball Edge Storage Optimized devices provide both block storage and Amazon S3-compatible object storage, and 40 vCPUs. They are well suited for local storage and large scale-data transfer up to 80TB. Snowball Edge Compute Optimized devices provide 52 vCPUs, block and object storage, and an optional GPU for use cases like advanced machine learning and full-motion video analysis in disconnected environments.

AWS Transfer Family: AWS Transfer Family securely scales your recurring business-to-business file transfers to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon Elastic File System (EFS) using SFTP, FTPS, and FTP protocols. Easily manage and share data with simple, secure, and scalable file transfers. The AWS Transfer Family provides fully managed support for file transfers over SFTP, FTPS, and FTP directly into and out of Amazon S3 and Amazon EFS. AWS helps you seamlessly migrate your file transfer workflows with AWS Transfer for SFTP, AWS Transfer for FTPS, and AWS Transfer for FTP by integrating with existing authentication systems — so nothing changes for your customers, partners, and internal teams, or their applications.

AWS Application Discovery Service: AWS Application Discovery Service helps you plan your migration to the AWS cloud by collecting usage and configuration data about your on-premises servers. Application Discovery Service is integrated with AWS Migration Hub, which simplifies your migration tracking as it aggregates your migration status information into a single console. You can view the discovered servers, group them into applications, and then track the migration status of each application from the Migration Hub console in your home region. AWS Application Discovery Service helps enterprise customers plan migration projects by gathering information about their on-premises data centers. Planning data center migrations can involve thousands of workloads that are often deeply interdependent. Server utilization data and dependency mapping are important early first steps in the migration process. AWS Application Discovery Service collects and presents configuration, usage, and behavior data from your servers to help you better understand your workloads.

AWS Cloud Adoption Readiness Tool (CART): The AWS Cloud Adoption Readiness Tool (CART) helps organizations of all sizes develop efficient and effective plans for cloud adoption and enterprise cloud migrations. This 16-question online survey and assessment report details your cloud migration readiness across six perspectives including business, people, process, platform, operations, and security. Once you complete a CART survey, you can provide your contact details to download a customized cloud migration assessment that charts your readiness and what you can do to improve it. This tool is designed to help organizations assess their progress with cloud adoption and identify gaps in organizational skills and processes.


Amazon API Gateway: Amazon API Gateway is an AWS service for creating, publishing, maintaining, monitoring, and securing REST, HTTP, and WebSocket APIs at any scale. API developers can create APIs that access AWS or other web services, as well as data stored in the AWS Cloud. As an API Gateway API developer, you can create APIs for use in your own client applications. A WebSocket API in API Gateway is a collection of WebSocket routes that are integrated with backend HTTP endpoints, Lambda functions, or other AWS services. You can use API Gateway features to help you with all aspects of the API lifecycle, from creation through monitoring your production APIs. Amazon API Gateway Lambda proxy integration is a simple, powerful, and nimble mechanism to build an API with a setup of a single API method. The Lambda proxy integration allows the client to call a single Lambda function in the backend. The function accesses many resources or features of other AWS services, including calling other Lambda functions.

Amazon CloudFront: Amazon CloudFront is a web service that speeds up distribution of your static and dynamic web content, such as .html, .css, .js, and image files, to your users. CloudFront delivers your content through a worldwide network of data centers called edge locations. When a user requests content that you’re serving with CloudFront, the request is routed to the edge location that provides the lowest latency (time delay), so that content is delivered with the best possible performance.

AWS Direct Connect: AWS Direct Connect is a cloud service solution that makes it easy to establish a dedicated network connection from your premises to AWS to achieve higher privacy benefits, additional data transfer bandwidth, and more predictable data transfer performance. Using AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in many cases can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections. AWS Direct Connect makes it easy to establish a dedicated connection from an on-premises network to one or more VPCs in the same region. Using private VIF on AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your data center, office, or colocation environment, as shown in the following figure. Using AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in many cases can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections.

AWS Global Accelerator: AWS Global Accelerator is a networking service that improves the performance of your users’ traffic by up to 60% using Amazon Web Services’ global network infrastructure. When the internet is congested, AWS Global Accelerator optimizes the path to your application to keep packet loss, jitter, and latency consistently low. With Global Accelerator, you are provided two global static public IPs that act as a fixed entry point to your application, improving availability. On the back end, add or remove your AWS application endpoints, such as Application Load Balancers, Network Load Balancers, EC2 Instances, and Elastic IPs without making user-facing changes. Global Accelerator automatically re-routes your traffic to your nearest healthy available endpoint to mitigate endpoint failure.

Amazon Route 53: Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating names like into the numeric IP addresses like that computers use to connect to each other. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well. Amazon Route 53 effectively connects user requests to infrastructure running in AWS – such as Amazon EC2 instances, Elastic Load Balancing load balancers, or Amazon S3 buckets – and can also be used to route users to infrastructure outside of AWS. You can use Amazon Route 53 to configure DNS health checks, then continuously monitor your applications’ ability to recover from failures and control application recovery with Route 53 Application Recovery Controller. Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow makes it easy for you to manage traffic globally through a variety of routing types, including Latency Based Routing, Geo DNS, Geoproximity, and Weighted Round Robin—all of which can be combined with DNS Failover in order to enable a variety of low-latency, fault-tolerant architectures. Using Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow’s simple visual editor, you can easily manage how your end-users are routed to your application’s endpoints—whether in a single AWS region or distributed around the globe. Amazon Route 53 also offers Domain Name Registration – you can purchase and manage domain names such as and Amazon Route 53 will automatically configure DNS settings for your domains.

AWS Transit Gateway: AWS Transit Gateway is a highly available and scalable service used to consolidate the AWS VPC routing configuration for a region with a hub-and-spoke architecture. Each spoke VPC only needs to connect to the Transit Gateway to gain access to other connected VPCs. Transit Gateway across different regions can peer with each other to enable VPC communications across regions. With a large number of VPCs, Transit Gateway provides simpler VPC-to-VPC communication management over VPC Peering. Transit Gateway enables customers to connect thousands of VPCs. You can attach all your hybrid connectivity (VPN and Direct Connect connections) to a single Transit Gateway— consolidating and controlling your organization’s entire AWS routing configuration in one place. Transit Gateway controls how traffic is routed among all the connected spoke networks using route tables. This hub and spoke model simplifies management and reduces operational costs because VPCs only connect to the Transit Gateway to gain access to the connected networks.

Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC): Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) gives you full control over your virtual networking environment, including resource placement, connectivity, and security. Get started by setting up your VPC in the AWS service console. Next, add resources to it such as Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) instances. Finally, define how your VPCs communicate with each other across accounts, Availability Zones, or AWS Regions. Define and launch AWS resources in a logically isolated virtual network. Secure and monitor connections, screen traffic, and restrict instance access inside your virtual network. Spend less time setting up, managing, and validating your virtual network. Customize your virtual network by choosing your own IP address range, creating subnets, and configuring route tables.


AWS Artifact: AWS Artifact, available in the console, is a self-service audit artifact retrieval portal that provides our customers with on-demand access to AWS’ compliance documentation and AWS agreements. You can use AWS Artifact Reports to download AWS security and compliance documents, such as AWS ISO certifications, Payment Card Industry (PCI), and System and Organization Control (SOC) reports. You can use AWS Artifact Agreements to review, accept, and track the status of AWS agreements such as the Business Associate Addendum (BAA). AWS Artifact is your go-to, central resource for compliance-related information that matters to you. It provides on-demand access to AWS’ security and compliance reports and select online agreements. Reports available in AWS Artifact include our Service Organization Control (SOC) reports, Payment Card Industry (PCI) reports, and certifications from accreditation bodies across geographies and compliance verticals that validate the implementation and operating effectiveness of AWS security controls. Agreements available in AWS Artifact include the Business Associate Addendum (BAA) and the Nondisclosure Agreement (NDA).

AWS Artifact Agreements: AWS Artifact Agreements enables you to review, accept, and manage agreements with AWS for an individual account, and for all accounts that are part of your organization in AWS Organizations. You can also use AWS Artifact to terminate agreements you have previously accepted if they are no longer required. AWS Artifact Agreements, a feature of the AWS Artifact service (our audit and compliance portal), enables you to review, accept, and manage agreements with AWS for your individual account, and also for all accounts that are part of your organization in AWS Organizations. You can also use AWS Artifact to terminate agreements you have previously accepted if they are no longer required.

AWS Certificate Manager (ACM): AWS Certificate Manager is a service that lets you easily provision, manage, and deploy public and private Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) certificates for use with AWS services and your internal connected resources. SSL/TLS certificates are used to secure network communications and establish the identity of websites over the Internet as well as resources on private networks. AWS Certificate Manager removes the time-consuming manual process of purchasing, uploading, and renewing SSL/TLS certificates. With AWS Certificate Manager, you can quickly request a certificate, deploy it on ACM-integrated AWS resources, such as Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon CloudFront distributions, and APIs on Amazon API Gateway, and let AWS Certificate Manager handle certificate renewals. It also enables you to create private certificates for your internal resources and manage the certificate lifecycle centrally. Public and private certificates provisioned through AWS Certificate Manager for use with ACM-integrated services are free.

Amazon Cognito: Cognito is primarily used for federation to your web and mobile apps running on AWS. It allows you to authenticate users through social identity providers. Amazon Cognito lets you add user sign-up, sign-in, and access control to your web and mobile apps quickly and easily. Amazon Cognito scales to millions of users and supports sign-in with social identity providers, such as Facebook, Google, and Amazon, and enterprise identity providers via SAML 2.0.

AWS Directory Service: AWS Directory Service helps you to set up and run a standalone AWS Managed Microsoft AD directory hosted in the AWS Cloud. You can also use AWS Directory Service to connect your AWS resources with an existing on-premises Microsoft Active Directory. To configure AWS Directory Service to work with your on-premises Active Directory, you must first set up trust relationships to extend authentication from on-premises to the cloud.

Amazon GuardDuty: Amazon GuardDuty is a threat detection service that continuously monitors your AWS accounts and workloads for malicious activity and delivers detailed security findings for visibility and remediation. Achieve organization-wide visibility into possible threats with only a few clicks. Expose threats quickly with AWS threat intelligence, behavioral models, and third-party security feeds. Mitigate threats early by triggering automated responses.

AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM): AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) enables you to manage access to AWS services and resources securely. Using IAM, you can create and manage AWS users and groups, and use permissions to allow or deny their access to AWS resources. When you create IAM policies, you can specify resource-level permissions, which include specific permissions for creating and deleting tags. In addition, you can include condition keys, such as aws:RequestTag and aws:TagKeys, which will prevent resources from being created if specific tags or tag values are not present. Amazon Identity and Access Management (IAM) is an Amazon service that helps an administrator securely control access to Amazon resources. IAM administrators control who can be authenticated (signed in) and authorized (have permissions) to use CloudTrail resources. IAM is an Amazon service that you can use with no additional charge.

Amazon Inspector: AWS Inspector is a security assessments service that helps you in checking for unintended network accessibility of your EC2 instances and for vulnerabilities on those EC2 instances. It is an automated security assessment service that helps improve the security and compliance of applications deployed on AWS.

AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS): AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) makes it easy for you to create and manage cryptographic keys and control their use across a wide range of AWS services and in your applications. AWS KMS is a secure and resilient service that uses hardware security modules that have been validated under FIPS 140-2, or are in the process of being validated, to protect your keys. AWS KMS is integrated with AWS CloudTrail to provide you with logs of all key usage to help meet your regulatory and compliance needs.

Amazon Macie: Amazon Macie is a security service that uses machine learning to automatically discover, classify, and protect sensitive data in AWS. Amazon Macie recognizes sensitive data such as personally identifiable information (PII) or intellectual property, and provides you with dashboards and alerts that give visibility into how this data is being accessed or moved. The fully managed service continuously monitors data access activity for anomalies, and generates detailed alerts when it detects risk of unauthorized access or inadvertent data leaks. Amazon Macie is an ML-powered security service that helps you prevent data loss by automatically discovering, classifying, and protecting sensitive data stored in Amazon S3. Amazon Macie uses machine learning to recognize sensitive data such as personally identifiable information (PII) or intellectual property, assigns a business value, and provides visibility into where this data is stored and how it is being used in your organization.

AWS Secrets Manager: Secrets Manager makes it easier to rotate, manage, and retrieve database credentials, API keys, and other secrets throughout their lifecycle. You can reference Secrets Manager in your CloudFormation templates to create unique secrets with every invocation of your template. By default, Secrets Manager encrypts these secrets with encryption keys that you own and control. Secrets Manager ensures the secret isn’t logged or persisted by CloudFormation by using a dynamic reference to the secret. You can configure Secrets Manager to rotate your secrets automatically without disrupting your applications. Secrets Manager offers built-in integrations for rotating credentials for all Amazon RDS databases and supports extensibility with AWS Lambda so you can meet your custom rotation requirements.

AWS Security Hub: AWS Security Hub is a cloud security posture management service that performs automated, continuous security best practice checks against your AWS resources. Security Hub aggregates your security alerts (i.e. findings) from various AWS services and partner products in a standardized format so that you can more easily take action on them. To maintain a complete view of your security posture in AWS, you need to integrate multiple tools and services including threat detections from Amazon GuardDuty, vulnerabilities from Amazon Inspector, sensitive data classifications from Amazon Macie, resource configuration issues from AWS Config, and AWS Partner Network Products. Security Hub simplifies how you understand and improve your security posture with automated security best practice checks powered by AWS Config rules and automated integrations with dozens of AWS services and partner products.

AWS Shield: AWS Shield is a managed Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) protection service that safeguards applications running on AWS. AWS Shield provides always-on detection and automatic inline mitigations that minimize application downtime and latency, so there is no need to engage AWS Support to benefit from DDoS protection. There are two tiers of AWS Shield – Standard and Advanced. All AWS customers benefit from the automatic protections of AWS Shield Standard, at no additional charge. AWS Shield Standard defends against most common, frequently occurring network and transport layer DDoS attacks that target your web site or applications. When you use AWS Shield Standard with Amazon CloudFront and Amazon Route 53, you receive comprehensive availability protection against all known infrastructure (Layer 3 and 4) attacks. . In addition to the network and transport layer protections that come with Standard, AWS Shield Advanced provides additional detection and mitigation against large and sophisticated DDoS attacks, near real-time visibility into attacks, and integration with AWS WAF, a web application firewall. AWS Shield Advanced also gives you 24×7 access to the AWS Shield Response Team (SRT) and protection against DDoS related spikes in your Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), Amazon CloudFront, AWS Global Accelerator and Amazon Route 53 charges.

AWS Single Sign-On (AWS SSO): AWS Single Sign-On (AWS SSO) is where you create, or connect, your workforce identities in AWS once and manage access centrally across your AWS organization. You can choose to manage access just to your AWS accounts or cloud applications. You can create user identities directly in AWS SSO, or you can bring them from your Microsoft Active Directory or a standards-based identity provider, such as Okta Universal Directory or Azure AD. With AWS SSO, you get a unified administration experience to define, customize, and assign fine-grained access. Your workforce users get a user portal to access all of their assigned AWS accounts, Amazon EC2 Windows instances, or cloud applications. AWS SSO can be flexibly configured to run alongside or replace AWS account access management via AWS IAM. AWS SSO also includes built-in integrations to many business applications, such as Salesforce, Box, and Microsoft 365.

AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store: AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store provides secure, hierarchical storage for configuration data management and secrets management. You can store data such as passwords, database strings, and license codes as parameter values. You can store values as plain text or encrypted data. You can then reference values by using the unique name that you specified when you created the parameter. Highly scalable, available, and durable, Parameter Store is backed by the AWS Cloud.

AWS Web Application Firewall (WAF): AWS Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a web application firewall that helps protect your web applications or APIs against common web exploits that may affect availability, compromise security, or consume excessive resources. AWS WAF gives you control over how traffic reaches your applications by enabling you to create security rules that block common attack patterns, such as SQL injection or cross-site scripting, and rules that filter out specific traffic patterns you define. You can get started quickly using Managed Rules for AWS WAF, a pre-configured set of rules managed by AWS or AWS Marketplace Sellers. The Managed Rules for WAF address issues like the OWASP Top 10 security risks. These rules are regularly updated as new issues emerge. AWS WAF includes a full-featured API that you can use to automate the creation, deployment, and maintenance of security rules. AWS WAF is a web application firewall that lets you monitor the HTTP and HTTPS requests that are forwarded to CloudFront, and lets you control access to your content. Based on conditions that you specify, such as the values of query strings or the IP addresses that requests originate from, CloudFront responds to requests either with the requested content or with an HTTP status code 403(Forbidden). You can also configure CloudFront to return a custom error page when a request is blocked.

AWS Cloud Hardware Security Module (CloudHSM): AWS CloudHSM is a cloud-based hardware security module (HSM) that enables you to easily generate and use your own encryption keys on the AWS Cloud. With CloudHSM, you can manage your own encryption keys using FIPS 140-2 Level 3 validated HSMs. CloudHSM offers you the flexibility to integrate with your applications using industry-standard APIs, such as PKCS#11, Java Cryptography Extensions (JCE), and Microsoft CryptoNG (CNG) libraries. You can use AWS CloudHSM to offload SSL/TLS processing for your web servers. Using CloudHSM for this processing reduces the burden on your web server and provides extra security by storing your web server’s private key in CloudHSM. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are used to confirm the identity of web servers and establish secure HTTPS connections over the Internet.


Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS): Amazon EBS offers a straight-forward encryption solution of data at rest , data in transit, and all volume backups. Amazon EBS encryption is supported by all volume types, and includes built-in key management infrastructure without having you to build, maintain, and secure your own keys. Amazon EBS encryption offers a simple encryption solution for your EBS volumes without the need to build, maintain, and secure your own key management infrastructure.

Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS): Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS) provides a simple, scalable, fully managed elastic NFS file system for use with AWS Cloud services and on-premises resources. Amazon EFS has a simple web services interface that allows you to create and configure file systems quickly and easily. With Amazon EFS, you pay only for the storage used by your file system and there is no minimum fee or setup cost. It is built to scale on-demand to petabytes without disrupting applications, growing and shrinking automatically as you add and remove files, eliminating the need to provision and manage capacity to accommodate growth. Amazon EFS can provide very low and consistent operational latency as well as a throughput scale of 10+GB per second. Amazon EFS offers two storage classes, Standard and Infrequent Access. The Standard storage class is used to store frequently accessed files. The Infrequent Access (IA) storage class is a lower-cost storage class that’s designed for storing long-lived, infrequently accessed files cost-effectively.

Amazon FSx: Amazon FSx for Lustre makes it easy and cost-effective to launch and run the popular, high-performance Lustre file system. You use Lustre for workloads where speed matters, such as machine learning, high-performance computing (HPC), video processing, and financial modeling. Amazon FSx file systems provide up to multiple GB/s of throughput and hundreds of thousands of IOPS. The specific amount of throughput and IOPS that your workload can drive on your file system depends on the throughput capacity and storage capacity configuration of your file system, along with the nature of your workload, including the size of the active working set. The open-source Lustre file system is designed for applications that require fast storage—where you want your storage to keep up with your computing capacity. Lustre was built to solve the problem of quickly and cheaply processing the world’s ever-growing datasets. It’s a widely used file system designed for the fastest computers in the world. It provides submillisecond latencies, up to hundreds of Gbps of throughput, and up to millions of IOPS.

Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3): Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) is an excellent object-based storage that is highly durable and scalable.. It is an ideal destination for backup data that might be needed quickly to perform a restore. Transferring data to and from Amazon S3 is typically done through the network, and is therefore accessible from any location. Amazon S3 is object storage built to store and retrieve any amount of data from anywhere. It’s a simple storage service that offers industry leading durability, availability, performance, security, and virtually unlimited scalability at very low costs. Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers scalability, data availability, security, and performance. Amazon S3 is designed for 99.999999999% (11 9’s) of durability, and stores data for millions of applications for companies all around the world.

Amazon S3 Glacier: Amazon S3 Glacier is a secure, durable, and extremely low-cost Amazon S3 storage class for data archiving and long-term backup. The Amazon S3 Glacier storage classes are purpose-built for data archiving, providing you with the highest performance, most retrieval flexibility, and the lowest cost archive storage in the cloud. All S3 Glacier storage classes provide virtually unlimited scalability and are designed for 99.999999999% (11 nines) of data durability. The S3 Glacier storage classes deliver options for the fastest access to your archive data and the lowest-cost archive storage in the cloud. With S3 Glacier, customers can store their data cost effectively for months, years, or even decades. S3 Glacier enables customers to offload the administrative burdens of operating and scaling storage to AWS, so they don’t have to worry about capacity planning, hardware provisioning, data replication, hardware failure detection and recovery, or time-consuming hardware migrations.

AWS Storage Gateway: AWS Storage Gateway connects an on-premises software appliance with cloud-based storage to provide seamless integration with data security features between your on-premises IT environment and the AWS storage infrastructure. You can use the service to store data in the AWS Cloud for scalable and cost-effective storage that helps maintain data security. Gateway-Cached volumes can support volumes of 1,024TB in size, whereas Gateway-stored volume supports volumes of 512 TB size. AWS Storage Gateway offers file-based, volume-based, and tape-based storage solutions. With a tape gateway, you can cost-effectively and durably archive backup data in GLACIER or DEEP_ARCHIVE. A tape gateway provides a virtual tape infrastructure that scales seamlessly with your business needs and eliminates the operational burden of provisioning, scaling, and maintaining a physical tape infrastructure.


Proxy Servers: Proxy servers usually act as a relay between internal resources (servers, workstations, etc.) and the Internet, and to filter, accelerate and log network activities leaving the private network. One must not confuse proxy servers (also called forwarding proxy servers) with reverse proxy servers, which are used to control and sometimes load-balance network activities entering the private network. A forward proxy server acts as an intermediary for requests from internal users and servers, often caching content to speed up subsequent requests. Companies usually implement proxy solutions to provide URL and web content filtering, IDS/IPS, data loss prevention, monitoring, and advanced threat protection. AWS customers often use a VPN or AWS Direct Connect connection to leverage existing corporate proxy server infrastructure, or build a forward proxy farm on AWS using software such as Squid proxy servers with internal Elastic Load Balancing (ELB).

Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk): Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a crowdsourcing marketplace that makes it easier for individuals and businesses to outsource their processes and jobs to a distributed workforce who can perform these tasks virtually. This could include anything from conducting simple data validation and research to more subjective tasks like survey participation, content moderation, and more. MTurk enables companies to harness the collective intelligence, skills, and insights from a global workforce to streamline business processes, augment data collection and analysis, and accelerate machine learning development.

AWS Cloud Development Kit: AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) is a software development framework for defining cloud infrastructure in code and provisioning it through AWS CloudFormation. The AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) lets you define your cloud infrastructure as code in one of five supported programming languages. It is intended for moderately to highly experienced AWS users. An AWS CDK app is an application written in TypeScript, JavaScript, Python, Java, or C# that uses the AWS CDK to define AWS infrastructure. An app defines one or more stacks. Stacks (equivalent to AWS CloudFormation stacks) contain constructs, each of which defines one or more concrete AWS resources, such as Amazon S3 buckets, Lambda functions, Amazon DynamoDB tables, and so on. The AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK) lets you easily define applications in the AWS Cloud using your programming language of choice. But creating an application is just the start of the journey. You also want to make changes to it and deploy them. You can do this through the Code suite of tools: AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodeBuild, AWS CodeDeploy, and AWS CodePipeline. Together, they allow you to build what’s called a deployment pipeline for your application.

Amazon WorkDocs: Amazon WorkDocs is a fully managed, secure content creation, storage, and collaboration service. With Amazon WorkDocs, you can easily create, edit, and share content, and because it’s stored centrally on AWS, access it from anywhere on any device. Amazon WorkDocs makes it easy to collaborate with others, and lets you easily share content, provide rich feedback, and collaboratively edit documents. You can use Amazon WorkDocs to retire legacy file share infrastructure by moving file shares to the cloud. Amazon WorkDocs lets you integrate with your existing systems, and offers a rich API so that you can develop your own content-rich applications. Amazon WorkDocs is built on AWS, where your content is secured on the world’s largest cloud infrastructure.

AWS Network Firewall: AWS Network Firewall is a stateful, managed, network firewall and intrusion detection and prevention service for your virtual private cloud (VPC) that you created in Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). With Network Firewall, you can filter traffic at the perimeter of your VPC. This includes filtering traffic going to and coming from an internet gateway, NAT gateway, or over VPN or AWS Direct Connect. Once AWS Network Firewall is deployed, you will see a firewall endpoint in each firewall subnet. Firewall endpoint is similar to interface endpoint and it shows up as vpce-id in your VPC route table target selection. You have multiple deployment models for Network Firewall.
AWS Single Sign-On: AWS Single Sign-On is a cloud-based single sign-on (SSO) service that makes it easy to centrally manage SSO access to all of your AWS accounts and cloud applications. Specifically, it helps you manage SSO access and user permissions across all your AWS accounts in AWS Organizations. AWS SSO also helps you manage access and permissions to commonly used third-party software as a service (SaaS) applications, AWS SSO-integrated applications as well as custom applications that support Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) 2.0. AWS SSO includes a user portal where your end-users can find and access all their assigned AWS accounts, cloud applications, and custom applications in one place.

Amazon CloudSearch: Amazon CloudSearch is a managed service in the AWS Cloud that makes it simple and cost-effective to set up, manage, and scale a search solution for your website or application. Amazon CloudSearch supports 34 languages and popular search features such as highlighting, autocomplete, and geospatial search. With Amazon CloudSearch, you can quickly add rich search capabilities to your website or application. You don’t need to become a search expert or worry about hardware provisioning, setup, and maintenance.

Recovery Time Objective (RTO): Recovery Time Objective (RTO) is defined by the organization. RTO is the maximum acceptable delay between the interruption of service and restoration of service. This determines what is considered an acceptable time window when service is unavailable.

Recovery Point Objective (RPO): Recovery Point Objective (RPO) is defined by the organization. RPO is the maximum acceptable amount of time since the last data recovery point. This determines what is considered an acceptable loss of data between the last recovery point and the interruption of service.

AWS VM Import/Export: AWS VM Import/Export enables you to easily import virtual machine images from your existing environment to Amazon EC2 instances and export them back to your on-premises environment. VM Import/Export is available at no additional charge beyond standard usage charges for Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3. As part of the import process, VM Import will convert your VM into an Amazon EC2 AMI, which you can use to run Amazon EC2 instances.

  1. Rehost (“lift and shift”) – In a large legacy migration scenario where the organization is looking to quickly implement its migration and scale to meet a business case, we find that the majority of applications are rehosted.
  2. Replatform (“lift, tinker and shift”) – This entails making a few cloud optimizations in order to achieve some tangible benefit without changing the core architecture of the application.
  3. Repurchase (“drop and shop”) – This is a decision to move to a different product and likely means your organization is willing to change the existing licensing model you have been using. For workloads that can easily be upgraded to newer versions, this strategy might allow a feature set upgrade and smoother implementation.
  4. Refactor / Re-architect – Typically, this is driven by a strong business need to add features, scale, or performance that would otherwise be difficult to achieve in the application’s existing environment.
  5. Retire – Identifying IT assets that are no longer useful and can be turned off will help boost your business case and direct your attention towards maintaining the resources that are widely used.
  6. Retain – You may want to retain portions of your IT portfolio because there are some applications that you are not ready to migrate and feel more comfortable keeping them on-premises, or you are not ready to prioritize an application that was recently upgraded and then make changes to it again. AWS X-Ray: AWS X-Ray helps developers analyze and debug production, distributed applications, such as those built using a microservices architecture. AWS X-Ray provides an end-to-end view of requests as they travel through your application, and shows a map of your application’s underlying components. You can use X-Ray to analyze both applications in development and in production, from simple three-tier applications to complex microservices applications consisting of thousands of services.

CloudEndure Migration: CloudEndure Migration is a block-level replication tool that simplifies the process of migrating applications from physical, virtual, and cloud-based servers to AWS. CloudEndure Migration supports any source infrastructure as long as it runs on x86 operating systems supported by Amazon Elastic Cloud Compute (EC2). This includes physical servers, P2V (virtual servers converted from physical), VMware, Hyper-V, and other cloud providers like Azure, GCP, IBM, or Oracle.

EC2Rescue tool: EC2Rescue can help you diagnose and troubleshoot problems on Amazon EC2 Linux and Windows Server instances. You can run the tool manually or you can run the tool automatically by using Systems Manager Automation and the AWSSupport-ExecuteEC2Rescue document. The AWSSupport-ExecuteEC2Rescue document is designed to perform a combination of Systems Manager actions, AWS CloudFormation actions, and Lambda functions that automate the steps normally required to use EC2Rescue.

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